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“Slope Protection Under Piled Quays” (2016)

‘Land Infill’ construction methods for piled wharves offer benefits to time and cost over traditional methods, as piling can be done from land without the use of marine plant. Case histories are presented, describing the benefits and challenges faced. With increasing size of container vessels, stone armour sizes required for modern vessel actions are becomingly increasingly impractical, particularly to piled slopes. Insitu concrete mattress is presented as a practical and constructable scour protection system for piled wharves.

“Propeller Action and Berth Scour Protection” (2016)

Effective scour protection is usually needed to protect berthing structures from vessel actions with increasing size and power. For seagoing vessels, use of propellers is usually the dominant vessel action for berth scour protection and the paper will focus on this, as well as improving understanding & guidance. The results of scale model testing of rock protection are presented and compared to scour duration upon rock stability.

“Bridge Scour Protection” (2016)

Bridge scour protection appears to be increasingly needed to protect foundations from more extreme flooding events. However, the invert level at which the protection is installed can have a significant effect upon flow through bridges and associated flooding levels. Methods to assess this will be outlined along with a review of scour protection types, and arrangements that are effective and beneficial.

“Berth Scour Protection for Modern Vessels, PIANC World Congress San Francisco USA” (2014)

The increase in vessel size and vessel types along with new propulsion systems has created an increase in the scour action to berth beds. Traditionally, rock rip rap or armour has been predominately used for berth protection, but the required rock size now often makes it impractical and other scour protection types with a higher performance are required. To date scour protection design has generally been based upon bed flow velocity, however failure is generally due to the loads or forces acting upon it.

“MARIN Testing of hydrodynamic bed loading from propellers” (2014)

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“Concrete mattress used for berth scour protection, GhIGS GeoAfrica 2013 Conference” (2013)

Geosynthetic concrete mattress systems are regularly used underwater to provide reliable in situ concrete protection. As vessel sizes and propulsion types advance, bed scour velocities in berths are increasing. Concrete mattress provides high scour resistance due to its interlocked slab nature, with experience of protection against jet flows presently up to 12.5 m/s. Design methods will be presented for the following actions in berths.

“Berth Scour Protection for Fast Ferry Jets, ICE Marine Structures & Breakwaters” (2013)

Vehicle carrying Fast Ferries have often caused significant erosion and damage to berths since their introduction in 1990. During berthing, the high speed propulsion jets are deflected under the vessel and cause direct scour of the bed with scour holes up to 9m deep. Many Berthing structures have been underscoured or destabilised and scour protection damaged. This action is usually much more significant than traditional propeller action and requires the design and provision of appropriate scour protection.

“WOLFSON UNIT CFD investigation of deflection bucket jet flows and the bed scouring loads produced by ro ro fast ferries” (2013)

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“Fabric Formwork Systems Used In Marine Construction, ICFF, Second International Conference on Flexible Formwork” (2012)

Fabric formwork systems are regularly used underwater to achieve controlled and reliable concrete and grout construction. Marine construction is much more onerous than construction on land and fabric formwork systems have developed to provide effective construction solutions. Principally, fabric formwork prevents concrete and grout washout and allows pre-made engineered forms to be placed and filled by diver or automation. The paper will describe the various aspects of fabric formwork technology and concrete construction systems generally developed to date with reference to case studies. It will also discuss the current and future prospects for both marine and land applications.

“Marine Pile Repairs by Concrete Encasement” Hawkswood M.G. (2011)

Piled Jetty structures form a vital part of port infrastructure for worldwide trade, yet their life span is often threatened by accelerated corrosion rates affecting steel piles. Many piles suffer from Accelerated Low Water Corrosion (ALWC) with significant section loss well before the design life of the structure expires. Port Owners and Engineers should respond by monitoring steel thickness and providing appropriate protection and repair.

“Foundations to Precast Marine Structures” Hawkswood M.G. & Allsop N.W.H. (2009)

Precast concrete elements are increasingly used in the construction of Maritime Structures. They offer the prospect of efficient unit production and rapid construction, but that requires the efficient construction of adequate foundation restraint. Foundation design and constructability for these elements is therefore a critical area, but little guidance is available on the different forms of foundation available.

“Revetment Construction at Port of Belwan, Indonesia” Loewy E., Burdall A.C. & Prentice A.G. (1984)

This paper describes the revetments used to protect a fine sand reclamation situated in the estuary of the Belawan River in Indonesia. A substantial length of the revetment is situated under a piled quay where grouted mattresses have been used to protect the 1:2.3 sand slope. Significant post construction settlement of the sand slope is expected and special measures were taken to enable the mattresses to accommodate differential settlement. The installation method in difficult environmental conditions and resulting modifications are presented.

“WELLICOME Bottom suction loads due to propeller scour action and ship movements” (1981)

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“Grout-filled Nylon Bags Speed Alderney Breakwater Repair” Mardel J.C. (1969)

Breakwaters, by their exposed positions, are usually difficult structures to maintain and the Alderney Breakwater in the Channel Islands is no exception. Built netween 1849-1864 to form a harbour of refuge for the British Fleet blockading the French ports, the breakwater arm was built on a submerged rubble mound and extended 4600ft from the shore into the unprecedented depth (for those days) of 36.5m at low water.