Fabric formwork systems are regularly used underwater to achieve controlled and reliable concrete and grout construction. Marine construction is much more onerous than construction on land and fabric formwork systems have developed to provide effective construction solutions. Principally, fabric formwork prevents concrete and grout washout and allows pre-made engineered forms to be placed and filled by diver or automation. The paper will describe the various aspects of fabric formwork technology and concrete construction systems generally developed to date with reference to case studies. It will also discuss the current and future prospects for both marine and land applications.