Concrete is widely used for maritime projects, with innovation in construction methods helping to overcome marine working conditions. Precast concrete construction is increasingly being developed to form marine structures. Methods to reliably form in situ concrete underwater have also advanced with innovation in the use of fabric formwork systems. Grout Bag systems are often used to form concrete foundations and joints to precast elements.
In situ Concrete Mattress systems are often used for scour protection in conjunction with rock falling aprons to provide secure edge details. Recent research has shown that the basic performance of scour protection depends upon whether the protection is ‘sealed’ to flow entry and this will be described with reference to present design methods.